Monday, September 8, 2008

Gao Jixing

Gao Jixing Gao Jichang, also known as Gao Jixing, was the founder of Jingnan, also known as Nanping, one of the kingdoms making up the Ten Kingdoms of China’s Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms Period, traditionally dated as lasting from 907 to 960.

Rise to Power

Gao Jichang was named the of Jiangling in 907 by the rulers of the newly-formed Later Liang Dynasty. After the Later Liang Dynasty fell, he declared himself the new king of Jingnan. He would be king for four years until his death in 928

Gaozu of Later Jin

Shi Jingtang 石敬瑭 was the founder of the , the third of the that controlled much of northern China from 907 to 960. The was the second of three successive dynasties that made up the middle three of the Five Dynasties.

Overthrow of the Later Tang Dynasty

Shi Jingtang was the son-in-law of Later Tang Dynasty emperor and was a general of the dynasty. Relations between the Khitans, who were formally allies of the Shatuo Turks, and the Li family, which dates back to 905 when made a brotherhood pact with Li Keyong, father of the founder of the Later Tang Dynasty. By the time his son, Li Cunxu, died, relations between the two had fallen out.

Shi Jingtang was the military commissioner of present-day before colluding with the to the north in his rebellion against the Later Tang Dynasty. With the Khitan assistance of Emperor Taizu of Liao's forces, Shi was able to declare himself the founding emperor of the .


Shi Jingtang moved the capital to Bian, now known as Kaifeng. During his reign, the ceded the strategic Sixteen Prefectures to the expanding . Due to this, and Khitan support for his dynasty, the is often derided as being a puppet of the Khitans.

Shi would continue to rule the until his death in 942.

Li Jiqian

Li Jiqian ; resisted the and organized a rebellion in 984. He created a successful alliance with the for military support. Li Jiqian arranged a peace agreement with the Song emperor, but violated the treaty himself. To avoid costly military campaigns, of the Song dynasty granted Li Jiqian the position over Dingnan, and recognized Li Jiqian's new empire of . He supported the construction of that were crucial for the development of agriculture in the arid areas of Xia, especially around the capital Xingqing 興慶 .

Li Keyong

Li Keyong was who was a jiedushi during the late Tang Dynasty and was key to developing a base of power for the Shatuo Turks in what is today Shanxi Province in China. His son, Li Cunxu, became the founder of the Later Tang Dynasty, the first of many Conquest Dynasties in China.

Service to the Tang Dynasty

A Tang official named Duan Wenchu was hated by the subordinate officials serving under him. Those officials asked Li for aid, and he responded by bringing more than ten thousand soldiers, defeating and killing Duan. The Tang Dynasty responded by sending armies against Li.

However, from the 870s, China’s Tang Dynasty was racked by numerous rebellions. Among the most serious was one led by Huang Chao, who sacked Chang'an in 880. The Tang emperor Xizong asked Li Keyong for assistance and granted him amnesty. Realizing this as an opportunity to expand Shatuo power into central China, Li Keyong sent the Likejun, a 40,000-strong cavalry force, to attack the Huang camp at Tongzhou. Li categorically defeated 150,000 rebels at the Battle of Liangtianpo in 882 and drove Huang Chao out of Chang'an. In February 884, his troops crossed the Yellow River and destroyed the rebel army at Battle of Zhongmou. Rebel commanders Shang Rang and Ge Congzhou both surrendered to the Tang Dynasty. Li's Shatuo cavalrymen played crucial roles in suppressing the rebellion and forcing Huang Chao to commit suicide in Langhu Valley in 884, helping Zhu Wen to quell the rebellion. For his assistance to the Tang, the emperor granted Li a base in , and was later named the Prince of Jin in 895.

Zhu Wen was displeased by the rewards granted to Li. Zhu failed in his attempt to have Li killed, and the two former comrades became heated rivals from that point.

Relations with the Later Liang Dynasty

After the fall of the Tang Dynasty in 907, Zhu Wen founded the Later Liang Dynasty. While the Later Liang dominated most of northern China, Li Keyong and the Shatuo Turks maintained a stronghold in . Called the State of Jin, they maintained their independence from the Later Liang Dynasty to the south and east. Li referred to himself as the King of Jin. He died the following year. His son continued to expand the State of Jin, and managed to overthrow the Later Liang Dynasty in 923 to form the Later Tang Dynasty.

Li Yixing

Li Yixing was Dingnan Jiedushi during the Tang Dynasty and the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms Period.

Liu Yin (Southern Han)

Liu Yin was a leader in the late Tang Dynasty and early part of the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms Period in Chinese history ranging from the late ninth century to early tenth century. His region of influence was in Southern China around the area now known as , or Guangzhou.

Rise to power

Liu Yin was named regional governor under the Tang Dynasty in 905, two years before its fall. After the fall of the , he became the Prince of Nanping around his power base of Guangdong. He maintained that title until his death in 917.


While he never declared a new kingdom or dynasty, he is historically considered to be the founder of the Southern Han kingdom which was founded by his son, after his death. This kingdom would continue to exist until 971 when it was forced to submit to Song Dynasty rule.

Ma Yin

Ma Yin , posthumously named Chu Wumuwang , was the first ruler of the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms Period state of Chu .

Rise to Power

Ma Yin fought against the rebel Yang Xingmi , who became the king of Wu under the generals Sun Ru 孫儒 and Liu Jianfeng 劉建鋒. In 896, he became military commissioner of a precursor kingdom named Hunan and in 907 he became the prince of the new kingdom of Chu.


The Later Tang Dynasty confirmed his status as the Prince of Chu in 927. His reign was notable for its peace and low taxes. One policy allowed commoners to pay their taxes with silk. This had the twin effects of reducing skimming of revenue by corrupt officials and facilitating the development of Hunan's silk industry.


Ma Yin was succeeded by his five sons in succession. However, discord within the Ma family led to the fall of Chu to the Southern Tang in 951.